Governance, on the other hand, is the sum of cumulative practice of behaviour and attitude of the government as seen in the manner they create and use the said devolutionary instruments. Form, style, systems, methods, and procedures of government generally reflect the pattern of governance in a nation or city. The quality and effectiveness of governance depend mostly on how judiciously the government uses the said instruments to help people achieve the ultimate goal of their progress - justice, equity and peace.
The term 'Governance' is derived from the Greek word 'kybernan' and 'kybernetes'. It means 'to steer and to pilot or be at the helm of things'. While the term 'government' indicates a political unit for the function of policy making as distinguished from the administration of policies, the word 'governance' denotes an overall responsibility for both - the political and administrative functions. It also implies ensuring moral behaviour and ethical conduct in the task of governing, i.e., the continuous exercise of authority on both the political and administrative units of governments. Some noteworthy definitions of 'governance' come from the World Bank, UNDP, OECD and The Commission of Global Governance. They are:
'The World Bank has identified three distinct aspects of governance: (i) the form of political regime; (ii) the process by which the authority is exercised in the management of a country's economic and social resources for development; and (iii) the capacity of governments to design, formulate and implement policies and discharge functions.' (World Bank, 1994). 'Governance is viewed as the exercise of economic, political and administrative authority to manage a country's affairs at all levels. It comprises mechanisms, processes, an institutions through which citizens and groups of articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations, and mediate their differences.' (UNDP, 1997)
'The concept of governance denotes the use of political authority and exercise of control in a society in relation to the management of its resources for social and economic development. This broad definition encompasses the role of public authorities in establishing the environment in which economic operators function and in determining the distribution of benefits as the nature of relationship between the ruler and the ruled'. (OECD, 1995)
'Governance is the sum of the many ways individuals and institutions, public and private, manage their common affairs. It is a continuing process through which conflicting or diverse interests may be accommodated and co-operative action may be taken. It includes formal institutions and regimes empowered to enforce compliance, as well as informal arrangements that people and institutions either have agreed to or perceive to be in their interest'. (Commission on Global Governance, 1995). Good governance is both a goal and a process. It only can help us find solutions to poverty, inequality and insecurity. It creates an environment in which civil organizations, business community, private citizens and other institutions can assume ownership of the city development process and the management of their communities.