Monday, 7 November 2011


What is Urban Planning?
Urban planning known as the "physical planning" or "land use planning". In other words, it is an art and science in shaping the growth and physical development, social and economic urban areas and rural areas.Urban planning (urban, city, and town planning) incorporates areas such as economics, design, ecology, sociology, geography, law, political science, and statistics to guide and ensure the orderly development of settlements and communities.Prominent features of urban planning are land use planning, zoning, environmental planning and transportation planning. Urban planning can include urban renewal, by adapting urban planning methods to existing cities suffering from decay and lack of investment. In other words, Urban planning is a mixture of science and art. It encompasses many different disciplines and brings them all under a single umbrella. The simplest definition of urban planning is that it is the organization of all elements of a town or other urban environment. However, when one thinks about all the elements that make up a town, urban planning suddenly seems complicated - and it is.

Planning Permission
Planning permission must be obtained from the Local Authority (PBT) before a development can be initiated in accordance with section 19. Application for Planning Permission shall be in such form and containing such particulars, and accompanied by the documents and plans set by local authorities as provided by section 21 (1). Section 21 (3) requires that if the application involves the erection of buildings, the Local Authority may direct the applicant to submit level details such as building sites, building height and shift back and forth.

Aggrieved by the decision of the Planning Permission
May appeal to the Appeal Board within one month from the date of the decision on him.

What is Proposed Development Report?
It is a report required to be prepared in accordance with the provisions of Section 21A, Town and Country Planning Act (Amendment) Act 1995, which must be submitted together with the layout plan submitted either to the application conversion, subdivision or erect buildings where relevant. It presents the fundamentals of planning, rational rationale and justification that would strengthen the suitability of development proposals.

What is the Local Plan?
Is a detailed plan to translate the policies and proposals contained in the Structure Plan. It shows the layout of the development of large bersekil for an area that is furnished with a written statement to explain the policies and details about the development.

What is the Structure Plan?
Is to submit a written participation policies and general proposals on land use development including measures to control the physical environment, communications and traffic for the period 15 to 20 years .

What is the Development Plan?
Development Plan comprises the Structure Plan, Local Plan, Local Development Plan and Rural Plan.

What is Open Space?
Open space reserved for public use or benefit.In land use planning, urban open space is open space areas for “parks”, “green spaces”, and other open areas. The landscape of urban open spaces can range from playing fields to highly maintained environments to relatively natural landscapes. They are commonly open to public access, however, urban open spaces may be privately owned. Areas outside of city boundaries, such as state and national parks as well as open space in the countryside, are not considered urban open space. Streets, piazzas, plazas and urban squares are not always defined as urban open space in land use planning.

What is Greenfield?
Undeveloped land such as forest and agricultural land. It also includes undeveloped land located within built-up areas such as parks, recreation and open space area the. Greenfield land is a term used to describe undeveloped land in a city or rural area either used for agriculture, landscape design, or left to naturally evolve. These areas of land are usually agricultural or amenity properties being considered for urban development. Greenfield land can be unfenced open fields, urban lots or restricted closed properties kept off limits to the general public by a private or government entity. Rather than build upon greenfield land a developer may choose to re-develop brownfield or greyfield lands, areas that have been developed but left abandoned or underused.

What is the Environmentally Sensitive Areas?
One area that needs special attention or consideration before any development is allowed in or near the area.A fragile ecosystem area where the conservation or preservation of the natural environment is sustained by state controls and/or grants.In other word, Environmentally Sensitive Areas are land and water areas containing natural features or ecological functions of such significance as to warrant their protection in the best long-term interest of the people and environment.

What is a Brownfield?
Any land or premises which have been developed or used but not yet fully exploited although it has a tendency to use or set up bangunan.Its also is vacant land, idle land or land that has been defiled. Brownfield sites are abandoned or underused industrial and commercial facilities available for re-use. Expansion or redevelopment of such a facility may be complicated by real or perceived environmental contaminations.In the United States urban planning jargon, a brownfield site (or simply a brownfield) is land previously used for industrial purposes or certain commercial uses. The land may be contaminated by low concentrations of hazardous waste or pollution, and has the potential to be reused once it is cleaned up. Land that is more severely contaminated and has high concentrations of hazardous waste or pollution, such as a Superfund site, does not fall under the brownfield classification. Mothballed brownfields are properties that the owners are not willing to transfer or put to productive reuse.

What is Brownfield Redevelopment?
Brownfield redevelopment is a relatively new idea of redevelopment in our country. The main factor brownfield development is a priority for brownfield development is a solution to the problem of shortage of land in the city center. brownfield redevelopment will also create many job opportunities to the unemployed. The main factor brownfield redevelopment should be encouraged because of the development will reduce the explore of the new forest because there are still brownfield sites can be developed. There are three key actor in the development of brownfield sites, they consist of property developers, Local Authorities and the purchaser. Brownfield redevelopment more popular now is because there is high demand for land in major cities such as Kuala Lumpur. The developer is not interested in developing brownfield sites because they often faced with the problem of uncertainty in the implementation of the redevelopment of this area. There was a special government agency should be established to manage the development of potential brownfield. Another important point in the research of the redevelopment of brownfield sites are special guide lines should be established for the reference of all parties involved.

What is Urban Regeneration?
Comprehensive and integrated vision and action which leads to the resolution of urban problems and which seeks to bring about a lasting improvement in the economic, physical, social and environmental condition of an area that has been subject to change. Urban regeneration does not only mean re-development per se. Due to rather destructive nature of re-development process, there have been alternative methods of re-generation practiced by planners and authorities such as refurbishment, upgrading and restoration. In other words urban regeneration  is based mainly on following themes:
• the relationship between the physical condition evident in urban areas and the nature of the social and political response;
• the need to attend to matters of housing and health in urban areas;
• the desirability of linking social improvement with economic progress;
• the containment of urban growth;
• the changing role and nature of urban policy.

What is Urban Gentrification?
Urban gentrification is a general term for the arrival of wealthier people in an existing urban district, a related increase in rents and property values, and changes in the district's character and culture. The term is often used negatively, suggesting the displacement of poor communities by rich outsiders. But the effects of urban gentrification are complex and contradictory, and its real impact varies. Many aspects of the urban gentrification process are desirable. Who wouldn't want to see reduced crime, new investment in buildings and infrastructure, and increased economic activity in their neighborhoods? Unfortunately, the benefits of these changes are often enjoyed disproportionately by the new arrivals, while the established residents find themselves economically and socially marginalized. Urban gentrification has been the cause of painful conflict in many American cities, often along racial and economic fault lines. Neighborhood change is often viewed as a miscarriage of social justice, in which wealthy, usually white, newcomers are congratulated for "improving" a neighborhood whose poor, minority residents are displaced by skyrocketing rents and economic change.

What is Saturated Build Area?
The main areas where land use is land use of urban residential, commercial, industrial, institutional and other infrastructural facilities.

What is the Public Utilities?
Facilities are available for public use.

What is Eco-Friendly Drainage?
The concept of source control in any additions or changes in quantity and water quality control in the area developed so that it does not bring negative effects such as flooding in downstream areas.

What is the Insert Plan?
Plan showing the detailed proposals and guidelines for the development in accordance with the main land use and subjects selected for the proposed area. It is provided to support and further details are available in the county proposal Subject Plan.

What is the Subject Plan?
A plan that shows the elements of the proposal and guidelines in accordance with the main land use and sectoral subjects.

What is Transit Oriented Development?
It is a concept of development where residential and commercial areas are planned and designed to maximize the use of transit and non-motorized vehicles.Transit Oriented Development is a walkable mixed-use form ofdevelopment typically focused within 400m radius of a transit station or any public bus network. Development shall be concentrated near stations to make transit convenient for people and encourage riderships. This form of development utilises existing infrastructure, optimises use of the transit network and enhances mobility for local communities. Transit Oriented Development concept will be promoted as the basis of urban planning to ensure viability of public transportation. This will implement a more sustainable approach to urban planning in the use of land around transit stations.

What is the Integrated Public Transport?
Public transport facilities are mutually integrated with each other.

What is a Community Center?
Meeting place where people can gather for recreation, leisure and social activities.

What is Urban Sprawl?
Horizontal urban expansion uncertain or uncontrollable or beyond the municipal boundaries.Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is a multifaceted concept, which includes the spreading outwards of a city and its suburbs to its outskirts to low-density and auto-dependent development on rural land, high segregation of uses (e.g. stores and residential), and various design features that encourage car dependency.Urban economists have entered the debate relatively recently. They tend to examine urban sprawl as the aggregate extent of urban land use or as the average urban land use density. It has been shown that urban sprawl can increase the aggregate urban land use and lower the average land use density while at the same time lowering average commuting travel times and increasing discretionary mobility.The term urban sprawl generally has negative connotations due to the health, environmental and cultural issues associated with the phrase. Residents of sprawling neighborhoods tend to emit more pollution per person and suffer more traffic fatalities.Sprawl is controversial, with supporters claiming that consumers prefer lower density neighborhoods and that sprawl does not necessarily increase traffic.

What is New Urbanism?
New urbanism promotes the creation and restoration of diverse, walkable, compact, vibrant, mixed-use communities composed of the same components as conventional development, but assembled in a more integrated fashion, in the form of complete communities. These contain housing, work places, shops, entertainment, schools, parks, and civic facilities essential to the daily lives of the residents, all within easy walking distance of each other. New urbanism promotes the increased use of trains and light rail, instead of more highways and roads. Urban living is rapidly becoming the new hip and modern way to live for people of all ages. Within the concept of New Urbanism today, there are four key ideas. The first of these is to ensure that a city is walkable. This means that no resident should need a car to get anywhere in the community and they should be no more than a five minute walk from any basic good or service. To achieve this, communities should invest in sidewalks and narrow streets.In addition to actively promoting walking, cities should also de-emphasize the car by placing garages behind homes or in alleys. There should also only be on-street parking, instead of large parking lots. Another core idea of New Urbanism is that buildings should be mixed both in their style, size, price and function. For example, a small townhouse can be placed next to a larger, single family home. Mixed-use buildings such as those containing commercial spaces with apartments over them are also ideal in this setting. Finally, a New Urbanist city should have a strong emphasis on the community. This means maintaining connections between people with high density, parks, open spaces and community gathering centers like a plaza or neighborhood square.

What is Compact City?
The Compact City or city of short distances is an urban planning and urban design concept, which promotes relatively high residential density with mixed land uses. It is based on an efficient public transport system and has an urban layout which – according to its advocates – encourages walking and cycling, low energy consumption and reduced pollution. A large resident population provides opportunities for social interaction as well as a feeling of safety in numbers and 'eyes on the street'. It is also arguably a more sustainable urban settlement type than urban sprawl because it is less dependent on the car, requiring less (and cheaper per capita) infrastructure provision. Compact City is a place that combines work and housing in a new way. So the worker becomes foreign worker leaves home and shelter as mono to become a place of interrelationships.

What is the Transit Planning Zone?
Areas within 400m of rail stations

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